top of page

Nurse Test Bank | Renal Disorders Quiz 1

Updated: Mar 27, 2022

Each of your kidneys is about the size of a fist. They're slightly below the rib cage, around the middle of your back. There are around a million microscopic structures called nephrons inside each kidney. Your blood is filtered by them. Wastes and excess water are removed, resulting in urine. Urine travels through tubes known as ureters. It travels to your bladder, which reserves pee until you need to use the restroom.

The nephrons are the target of the majority of kidney disorders. The kidneys may be unable to eliminate waste as a result of this injury. Genetic issues, trauma, and medications can all be factors. If you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close relative with kidney disease, you're more likely to get renal disease. Chronic renal disease wreaks havoc on the nephrons over time.

Practice Your Knowledge with this FREE nursing test bank on Renal Disorders

Answers will be provided at the end of this test bank. Feel free to copy and paste for studying purposes.

1. A client with a history of chronic renal failure receives hemodialysis treatments three times per week through an arteriovenous (AV) fistula in the left arm. Which intervention should the nurse include in the care plan?

a) Assess the AV fistula for a bruit and thrill.

b) Keep the AV fistula site dry.

c) Take the client's blood pressure in the left arm.

d) Keep the AV fistula wrapped in gauze.

2. The nurse is caring for a patient who underwent a kidney transplant. The nurse understands that rejection of a transplanted kidney within 24 hours after transplant is termed which of the following?

a) Acute rejection

b) Chronic rejection

c) Simple rejection

d) Hyperacute rejection

3. The client with polycystic kidney disease asks the nurse, "Will my kidneys ever function normally again?" The best response by the nurse is:

a) "As the disease progresses, you will most likely require renal replacement therapy."

b) "Draining of the cysts and antibiotic therapy will cure your disease."

c) "Dietary changes can reverse the damage that has occurred in your kidneys."

d) "Genetic testing will determine the best treatment for your condition."

4. A client with renal failure is undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Which nursing diagnosis is the most appropriate for this client?

a) Risk for infection

b) Impaired urinary elimination

c) Toileting self-care deficit

d) Activity intolerance

5. A client with end-stage renal disease is scheduled to undergo a kidney transplant using a sibling donated kidney. The client asks if immunosuppressive drugs can be avoided. Which is the best response by the nurse?

a) "Let's wait until after the surgery to discuss your treatment plan."

b) "The doctor may decide to delay the use of immunosuppressant drugs."

c) "Immunosuppressive drugs guarantee organ success."

d) "Even a perfect match does not guarantee organ rejection."

6. The nurse is caring for a patient after kidney surgery. What major danger should the nurse closely monitor for?

a) Hypovolemic shock caused by hemorrhage

b) Abdominal distention owing to reflex cessation of intestinal peristalsis

c) Paralytic ileus caused by manipulation of the colon during surgery

d) Pneumonia caused by shallow breathing because of severe incisional pain

7. Which nursing assessment finding indicates that the client who has undergone renal transplant has not met expected outcomes?

a) Weight loss

b) Absence of pain

c) Diuresis

d) Fever

8. The nurse is educating a patient who is required to restrict potassium intake. What foods would the nurse suggest the patient eliminate that are rich in potassium?

a) Cooked white rice

b) Salad oils

c) Citrus fruits

d) Butter

9. Following a nephrectomy, which assessment finding is most important in determining nursing care for the client?

a) Blood tinged drainage in Jackson-Pratt drainage tube

b) Urine output of 35 to 40 mL/hour

c) SpO2 at 90% with fine crackles in the lung bases

d) Pain of 3 out of 10, 1 hour after analgesic administration

10. The nurse is reviewing a patient's laboratory results. What findings does the nurse assess that are consistent with acute glomerulonephritis? (Select all that apply.)

a) Red blood cells in the urine

b) Proteinuria

c) Polyuria

d) Hemoglobin of 12.8 g/dL

e) White cell casts in the urine

11. A client admitted with a gunshot wound to the abdomen is transferred to the intensive care unit after an exploratory laparotomy. I.V. fluid is being infused at 150 ml/hour. Which assessment finding suggests that the client is experiencing acute renal failure (ARF)?

a) Urine output of 250 ml/24 hours

b) Temperature of 100.2° F (37.8° C)

c) Serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg/dl

d) Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 22 mg/dl

12. Which of the following nursing actions is most important in caring for the client following lithotripsy?

a) Administer allopurinol (Zyloprim).

b) Notify the physician of hematuria.

c) Monitor the continuous bladder irrigation.

d) Strain the urine carefully for stone fragments.

13. Which of the following is a characteristic of the intrarenal category of acute renal failure?

a) Decreased creatinine

b) High specific gravity

c) Increased BUN

d) Decreased urine sodium

14. A male client has doubts about performing peritoneal dialysis at home. He informs the nurse about his existing upper respiratory infection. Which of the following suggestions can the nurse offer to the client while performing an at-home peritoneal dialysis?

a) Avoid carrying heavy items.

b) Auscultate the lungs frequently.

c) Perform deep-breathing exercises vigorously.

d) Wear a mask when performing exchanges.

15. The nurse is administering calcium acetate (PhosLo) to a patient with ESKD. When is the best time for the nurse to administer this medication?

a) 2 hours before meals

b) 2 hours after meals

c) At bedtime with 8 ounces of fluid

d) With food

16. Mr. Jarvis's renal failure has become chronic. You are seeing him in clinic and he discusses the various signs and symptoms he is experiencing. Select all of the following which you know to be associated with chronic renal failure.

a) Muscle cramps

b) Enhanced cognition

c) Bleeding of the oral mucous membranes

d) Lethargy

17. A group of students are reviewing the phases of acute renal failure. The students demonstrate understanding of the material when they identify which of the following as occurring during the second phase?

a) Oliguria

b) Acute tubular necrosis

c) Diuresis

d) Restored glomerular function

18. A nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with acute renal failure. The nurse notes on the intake and output record that the total urine output for the previous 24 hours was 35 ml. Urine output that's less than 50 ml in 24 hours is known as:

a) oliguria.

b) hematuria.

c) polyuria.

d) anuria.

19. The nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with chronic glomerulonephritis. The nurse will observe the patient for the development of which of the following?

a) Metabolic alkalosis

b) Hypophosphatemia

c) Hypokalemia

d) Anemia

20. When caring for the patient with acute glomerulonephritis, which of the following assessment findings should the nurse anticipate?

a) Low blood pressure

b) Tea-colored urine

c) Left upper quadrant pain

d) Pyuria